Tag Archives: Isaiah Berlin

Who’s Your Daddy? An appreciation of Fathers and Sons by Ivan Turgenev

Fathers and Sons by Turgenev - Penguin book cover

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During his lifetime, Turgenev was the most popular Russian novelist in Europe, even taking into account Dostoyevksy and Tolstoy. Fascinatingly, he was also the most controversial.  (The controversy surrounding this novel continued at least up until the 1950s.)

While he spent most of his life abroad, living in Paris, in particular (he was a passionate Europhile), he remained throughout his life devoted to Russia and its people.

Turgenev’s greater popularity, compared with his two most famous counterparts, arguably rests on his lead characters’ deeper humanity and greater emotional complexity in his novella-length fictions. With Dostoyevsky and Tolstoy, their own characters often begin in conflict and are riddled with anxieties that get progressively worse while often see sawing still between only two opposing viewpoints over many hundreds of pages .

Of the characters themselves, there is much about them to enjoy, be engaged with as well as challenged by. Bazarov and Arkady, university students, take a holiday together, visiting Arkady’s landlord and liberal-minded, caring father (Nikolai) and uncle (Pavel), formerly a distinguished army captain, at Nikolia’s farm and home, with whom Pavel also lives. The conflict between `fathers and sons’ is played out primarily in this holiday, arising because of Bazarov’s deep-seated nihilism and his insistent, relentlessly stern advocacy of such miserable, cynical views to Nikolai and Pavel.

The story is worth reading just for two characters alone: Bazarov, who is infuriating and an unforgettable anti-hero. Supremely arrogant and contemptuous of others, he respects no codes of conduct and appreciates nothing, save that which he defines and determines. He’s rude to his charming and much devoted friend, Arkady, who himself is in such awe of Bazarov he can’t help but appear to collude with his all-encompassing miserable and bitter worldview.

Bazarov’s nihilism confounds and upset Arkady’s father – and angers Pavel. Yet ironically it is Bazarov’s own rejection of Arkady’s friendship that brings Arkady to his senses, reconnecting him with a sense of humanity, empathy and love he always felt for both his father and uncle.

Pavel is another compelling character; he’s amusing, with a caustic sense of humour and irony and is superbly realised. He’s a Russian who, while now elderly, remains as he was from his youth: distinguished, handsome, with a reputation as a `lady-killer’, sustained by his aristocratic flair and his taste for colourful English bespoke tailoring and fancy accoutrements (handkerchiefs, cufflinks, neckerchiefs). He’s deeply civilised, graceful, yet in no doubt of his views, with a strong and independent perspective and depth of character. He is also deeply generous and caring, having given much of his money to Nikolai, to help his brother keep his farm and land. 

It is no surprise, given the brilliantly drawn and vivid characters of Bazarov and Pavel, that it is their debates that make the novel such a compelling read. We witness Pavel regress from civilised decorum to bemusement, yet all the while becoming increasingly agitated, and failing in trying to stay true to his sense of honour and code of conduct. Bazarov mirrors him for integrity, yet insults by his bored manner, his steely, offensive and effortless cynicism. 

Their discussions constitute the heart of the novel and convey Turgenev’s conflict over the ever-deepening rift between his own generation of ‘fathers’ and that of Russia’s ‘sons’; a portrait of a country in turbulent times and anticipating even more troubled times ahead. Powerful, evocative and deeply thoughtful: it more than merits its status as a classic novel.

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A note on this edition:

There are several English editions of Ivan Turgenev’s Fathers and Sons (1861) including some cheaper than this (e.g., the Wordsworth edition), but this is by far the best to date for two reasons:

  • Rosemary Edmonds’ translation from Russian into English in this edition is elegant and smooth, and her own introduction is excellent – providing meaningful reflection and understanding not only of the novel, but Turgenev’s talent, other works, and the political and literary times he lived through.
  • The second reason is that as far as I can tell, this edition is the only one that has Isaiah Berlin’s brilliant, insightful lecture on the novel that he first gave in 1970, and was included in this edition from 1975 onwards. It has an invaluable review of the novel’s historical context and background in terms of philosophy and politics in Russia during Turgenev’s lifetime.
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Harold Nicolson’s The Age of Reason – The best book on 18th century society?

The Age of Reason by Harold Nicolson - click the image to buy the book with free worldwide delivery

Well, The Age of Reason, 1700-1789, is certainly the best single volume book publication I have read to date that gives a rich overview of 18th century society — principally European, though also covering in less depth the American and British — including its cultural, intellectual and political life.  Harold Nicolson’s intelligence, graceful writing style, wit, and — importantly — deep reading and study of the 18th century makes this survey a joy to read, from beginning to end.  (In fact, he wrote several books on important people in the 18th century, which are listed on his Wikipedia page.)

Nicolson not only captures but also puts into context the overlapping intellectual, philosophical, political, religious and cultural viewpoints, the collective atmosphere of such influences, the events they related to and the most significant figures of the 18th century that were involved.  As a one-volume accomplishment, it is outstanding for its analysis, portrayal and critique of the glorious, confabulated world of that significant period in Western civilisation’s historical development.  The only other one-volume study worthy of comparison, notably because it is also so wide-ranging and comprehensive in its survey — but through a selection of excerpts from writers of the period, and covering all key aspects of society, from gender and race, reason and nature, crime and punishment, to manners and morals, etc. — is The Portable Enlightenment Reader, one of the excellent books in the series of anthologies published by the Viking Portable Library.

There really is no better achievement in terms of narrative, or one more beautifully written, than Nicolson’s brief, clever elucidations of the most important, larger-than-life and frankly highly entertaining figures of the time (sometimes with the delicious hindsight that we can afford), including: Voltaire, Frederick the Great, The ‘Salons’, Horace Walpole, Catherine the Great, Jonathan Swift, Benjamin Franklin, The Encylopedie (Diderot, et al), Samuel Johnson, Tom Paine, Rousseau and several others, besides.

If, like me, you are fascinated by 18th century society — I admit I’m coming at this from reading from a European cultural viewpoint — there are some great books to enjoy. Just see below.  A couple of notes, FYI:

  • If you click on one of the book covers below that has an asterisk before the title, you will be taken to BookDepository.com to read about it and/or to buy it with free worldwide delivery.  However, if the book isn’t available, the cover link will only take you to information about the author and I’d recommend instead that you look for a cheap secondhand copy via Bookfinder.com — probably the most comprehensive book search website in the world and where you are likely to find several editions at low-cost; otherwise, try Amazon’s marketplace (simply search for the title, and usually several low-cost options will be available), or abebooks (.co.uk or .com).
  • The books by Isaiah Berlin (The Age of Enlightenment) and Leslie Stephen (History of English Thought in the Eighteenth Century [in two volumes]), while clearly and intelligently written like all the others I recommend, are more demanding on the mind, requiring active engagement rather than reading for pleasure alone.

    * History of English Thought in the Eighteenth Century - Volume One of Two Volumes by Leslie Stephen

    * History of English Thought in the Eighteenth Century - Volume Two of Two Volumes by Leslie Stephen

    * The Enlightenment - Volume Two of Two Volumes by Peter Gay

    * The Enlightenment - Volume One of Two Volumes by Peter Gay

    The Age of Enlightenment by Isaiah Berlin

    * The Portable Enlightenment Reader, Edited by Isaac Kramnick

    The Eighteenth Century Background by Basil Willey

    * The Scottish Enlightenment: The Scots' Invention of the Modern World by Arthur Herman

England in the Eighteenth Century by J. H. Plumb

* English Society in the 18th Century by Roy Porter

Dr Johnson's London by Liza Picard

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